Blue Grotto in Malta is One of Island’s Three Amazing Maritime Attractions

Updated on January 3, 2024 by Meg Pier
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The Blue Grotto in Malta is an extraordinary natural phenomenon and must-see destination. While there is no doubt it's sublime beauty is a premiere Maltese experience, the humble boat you'll take to get there is also unique to this Mediterranean island.

In fact, there are three kinds of traditional boats in Malta, which are each associated with a stunning coastal locale. The Blue Grotto is home to the frigatina. On the waters of the Grand Harbor you can find the Maltese craft known as a dghajsa. And in Marsaxlokk Harbor, you'll find a fleet of colorful luzzu boats that are emblematic of this Mediterranean island.

The Blue Grotto in Malta is a cluster of massive caves found along the southeast coast of Malta near the village of Wied iz-Żurrieq. Accessible only by boat, there are six caves below a main arch that reaches 98 feet in height. The caves were created after many centuries, as the rushing water of the ocean weathered away at what was once a cliff.

Taking a Frigatina to Remarkable World of Blue and Green

Arriving at the tiny cove that is the departure point for the Blue Grotto, I was the last to board the small boat. I plopped down at the rear of the craft, next to the man who helped me aboard. During the next half-hour, he navigated my journey into a remarkable world of a hundred shades of blue and green.

A boatman in the Blue Grotto in Malta, Carmel D’Amato has the sea in his veins—his family has been plying these waters for over 80 years. He is a third-generation captain of one of 77 boats that bring visitors into the gaping caverns that rise out of the aquamarine waters here. The vessel Carmel and his fellow boatmen use is a frigatina, one of several kinds of traditional Malta boats.

Remarkable World of Blue and Green
Frigatinas at rest near Wied iz-Żurrieq in Malta. Photo: Meg Pier

Carmel said that only six of these boats are still wooden. The narrow bay they call home is enclosed with sheer cliff face, and storms coming in from the south are frequent--four years ago, two-story waves created by gales off the coast of Africa washed away 30 boats. As a result, the boats are taken out of the water each evening and stored in a boathouse. About ten years ago, the owners began converting to fiberglass, which makes lighter work of this daily lifting.

Blue Grotto in Malta, a Waterborne Aurora Borealis

I felt my stomach churn as we motored from the narrow harbor, no more than a slit in a steep rock wall, to the vast open sea. Within moments, we tucked back into a cozy inlet and my anxiety began to turn to anticipation. Then, as my curiosity mounted, we veered right and through the mouth of the first in a series of caves. After an instant of darkness, I was soon transfigured by what looked like a waterborne aurora borealis.

Waterborne Aurora Borealis Blue Grotto in Malta
The Blue Grotto in Malta seen from above. Photo: Meg Pier

The chamber seemed to throb with a luminous sapphire light, the translucent water serving as a prism, refracting the rays of sun seeping in from outside. As we rocked to the rhythm of the waves, Carmel showed us a stretch of glowing orange coral at the watermark on the cave’s wall. Moments later he pointed out another patch, this one purple, just above lapping teal waves.

I asked Carmel if he had ever been frightened by steering against the tide inside the caves, a question he laughed off. When I persisted, he acknowledged a time in his early days when a storm came up unexpectedly, the winds changed, and, yes, he had been a little scared, but the squall had passed quickly.

Blue Grotto in Malta caves massive natural stone

After weaving in and out of several caves, each a dappled canvas of light and dark hues, he turned a corner and a massive natural stone arch loomed before us, carved in the cliff face by centuries of wind and water. On our return, we saw another formation that has probably existed for eons, a line of fisherman on a ledge in the rocks above, their rods forming a row of right angles in the sky.

Maritime Culture of Dghajsas, Frigatinas and Luzzus

Malta boats are colorful boats that offer a fascinating voyage into the ancient history of this Mediterranean island. A trio of skippers gave me tutorials on local crafts known as dghajsas, frigatinas and luzzus, offering insight into the maritime culture of the Blue Grotto in Malta.

As I walked along the quay of Malta’s Grand Harbor, I admired a small flotilla of graceful and brightly-painted boats bobbing in the clear azure water. Boatman Carmen Farrugia called out a welcome and I happily accepted his invitation to board his dghajsa, (pronounced dye-sa) to enjoy the view from the water. Navigating from the boat’s rear, he explained that the dghajsa is built as a passenger boat, and is akin to a gondola.

Blue Grotto in Malta Frigatinas and Luzzus
Fort Saint Angelo, a large bastioned fort in Birgu, Malta, located across the Grand Harbour from Valletta.

The craft has a high fore stem, called a rota in Maltese, The shape of its rota developed for two reasons, both related to its usage. First, the height provides space for the boat’s registration number, which, as a passenger vehicle, needs to be visible to port authorities. And second, it gives the boatman a place to hold the boat steady when he brings passengers ashore while taking the fare with his other.

Blue Grotto in Malta Maltese boatman
Touring Malta's Grand Harbor from a dghajsa makes for a relaxing way to appreciate the Middle Age architecture of the Knights of St. John

As we glided along the Harbor, Carmen pointed out a marble 16th-century “gardiola” jutting out from a promontory overlooking the water. The watchtower was adorned with sculpted ears and eyes signaling a watchful presence high above Valletta’s historic Grand Harbor. The handiwork of the Knights of St. John stretched along the graceful curves of the waterline--graduated tiers of golden stone rising from the shore, protectively encircling a swath of inland ochre-colored dwellings.

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Influence of Knights of St. John and British

The Knights of St. John were a long-time presence on Malta, one that continues to loom large today—they make regular appearances in everyday conversation with locals. A religious order formed during the times of the Crusades in the 11th century, the Knights were given Malta as a home in 1530 by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, for the rent of two falcons a year.

Early in their 265-year reign of the island, the Knights established the adjoining “Three Cities” of Senglea, Cospicua and Vittoriosa along the southern coast of Grand Harbor. After a horrific 1565 battle with invading Turks that involved decapitated heads being fired as cannonballs, the Knights built the highly fortified Valletta across the Grand Harbor, on the Sciberras Peninsula. At 1,800 feet by 3,000 feet, Valletta is Europe’s tiniest capital.

Carmen told me the dghajsa's backrests are called spallieri and generally display a glazed oval in the center that depicts a British symbol, such as a lion, St. George, or the Brittania. This practice speaks to Britain's long-standing presence in Malta, which they ruled from 1814 – 1964, and the economic reliance of the Maltese dghajsa boatmen on the English, who they long considered the source of their daily income.

There were some concerns that the dghajsa would not survive the British withdrawal from Malta in 1979 when the island country became totally independent. In fact, tourism has ensured that the crafts have not only survived but thrive, as a popular means of getting around the Three Cities.

Carmen pointed out sights such as ancient Fort St. Angelo at the tip of Vittoriosa, and the 21st century Mediterranean Film Studios beyond it, where water scenes from The Spy Who Loved Me and The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen were shot. He told me that after a stint in the Navy, he had emigrated to Canada 42 years ago when he was 24, but came back after a year. During my visit, I met many Maltese who had worked abroad but returned home.

“Now, I go to church every morning and pray for beer and bread,” Carmen said with a smile, as we ended my tour at the Vittoriosa embankment in front of the Maritime Museum. “That need is met by taking people for a ride, like this.”

Malta Maritime Museum and Regatta Tradition

The Museum resides in what had been the British Navy’s bakery. Built-in 1842, its exterior was inspired by England’s Windsor Castle. Inside, it now offers a well-documented look at Malta’s long history on the water.

Malta Maritime Museum British Navy’s bakery
Image Credit: © Marie-Lan Nguyen / Wikimedia Commons

Joe Abela is the Museum’s ship model maker and restorer. He told me that Grand Harbor hosts two regattas each year using traditional Malta boats, both commemorating significant passages in the island’s annals. The first is held on March 31, in observance of Malta's Freedom Day, when the British departed; the second, on September 8, celebrates the victory over the Turks.

Blue Grotto in Malta Joe Abela Museum’s ship

A typical race day for Regatta participants starts with a Holy Mass at 10 a.m. held on the wharf near the rowing club, followed a light dinner. By 12:30 p.m., the rowers have to be at the Deep Water Quay area, ready to race. Each village has a traditional spot from which they shout and sing to encourage their rowers, with the enthusiasm getting wilder as the boats get near the finish line at the Customs House.

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Giving Thanks for Good Luck

According to Joe, when the Senglea team wins, a flotilla of boats from the village across the harbor to the Customs House to escort the victors back to the Senglea Marina. The contingent is met by a crowd of supporters and a spontaneous party is held near the Regatta Club, which continues till late in the evening.

“The following day everybody sleeps very late and in the morning the city is like a ghost town,” he wryly observed.

Blue Grotto in Malta Maritime Museum
Image Credit: Malta Maritime Museum

One of Joe’s primary resources in understanding the structures and color schemes of historic vessels is “ex voto” paintings, commissioned by sailors after surviving a turbulent storm as offerings to the Madonna or other figures central to their Catholic faith. The Maritime Museum displays one such painting, originally from the village of Qala, on the neighboring island of Gozo. In Malti, Qala means "sail.” The local proverb ‘Ghandu r-rih fil-qala’ refers to the ‘wind blowing the sails,’ meaning someone has luck on his side when performing a task.

 Seafood Restaurants, Market and Luzzus in Marsaxlokk Bay

My next foray into the maritime culture of the Blue Grotto in Malta brought me to the home of about 70% of the Maltese fishing fleet.

Marsaxlokk port Seafood Restaurants Market
Marsaxlokk port is especially known as a home for the luzzu. Photo: Meg Pier

If seen from the seat of an airplane, Malta’s outline resembles that of a fish, and Marsaxlokk Bay is at its “mouth.” The harbor is like a bowl of beautifully-wrapped candy, with scores of vibrantly-painted boats in hues of yellow, red, blue, green and brown, all nestled side-by-side. The bows of many Malta boats are painted with the symbol of the “eyes of Osiris,” a practice believed to have been inherited from another civilization that once called Malta home, the Phoenicians, a Mediterranean trading culture dominant between 1550 – 300 B.C.

The luzzu decoration of the eye of Osiris may originate with the Phoenicians
The luzzu decoration of the eye of Osiris may originate with the Phoenicians. Photo: Meg Pier

Decorating the bow of a luzzu evolved from the days when seafarers, always superstitious, created figureheads that originally represented fearsome creatures intended to scare the ‘bad spirits’ at sea. Later, the figureheads assumed a more altruistic appearance. Traditionally, the bows of the Maltese luzzu boasted a triangular area called the “moustache,” which identified its home port, a tradition no longer observed. According to the old custom, when the master was in mourning, this area of the luzzu bow was painted black.

Experiencing Life Like a True Maltese in Blue Grotto

I arrived here to find it was market day, and the harbor was abuzz with activity. The shoreline was crammed with stalls selling local handicrafts, and merchants vied for the attention of the crowds milling past their tables spread with wares. The water was strung with boat upon boat, bow to stern across the crowded bay, fishermen calling to each other as they unloaded their catch. With each step, my eyes were drawn in a dozen different directions, jumping across the intersecting angles, the scene an ever-changing kaleidoscope of primary colors.

The harbor is ringed with seafood restaurants, most of them two-storied, family-run enterprises. Business was brisk, with extended families at big tables piled high with platters. Hungry from the sea air, I soon was eagerly devouring Stuffat Tal-Qamit, a delicious octopus stew.

Malta Boats True Maltese market day handicrafts
Blue Grotto in Malta. Photo: Meg Pier

Joseph Farrugia is a Marsaxlokk fisherman whom I met as he and his son unloaded the catch from their luzzu (pronounced loots-zoo). They go out every morning just after sunrise to retrieve the nets they put out the prior evening before sunset. Their daily routine is dictated by a startlingly simple fact--in daylight, fish can see the nets.

Like Joseph’s boat, almost all those in Marsaxlokk Bay are luzzus. He said the luzzu is much more suited to a fisherman’s work than a fiberglass boat—heavier, more stable, with its shape providing more space for his nets. Joseph uses three different kinds of nets, ranging from 24 – 40 square millimeters, with which he catches bottom fish, such as squid, octopus, and mallet. A good day brings 100 kilos of fish; a bad day can be as little as five kilos.

A Palpable Pattern of Time, Place and Tradition

In the summer months, Joseph may go out as far as ten miles into the sea; in the winter, it’s not safe to go out more than a mile. If he has a favorite watering hole, he’s not saying. Other than spots off-limits to fisherman, such as sanctuaries and diving sites, he sets his nets all around the island.

Joseph said his family has fished for as long as he can remember. His son joined him recently; he was taught by his father and uncles when he was 15, more than 40 years ago.

When asked what he does for fun in the Blue Grotto in Malta, Joseph smiled, and replied: “Fish.”

I left Joseph’s boat and meandered along the harbor’s circumference. Before me, in a luzzu, a fisherman cut a line with his teeth. To his right, a man tugged on one of the piles of blue and green nets he seemed swaddled in. To his left, an old salt took lunch out of a paper bag. Behind him, the dark head of young fisherman popped up from below board and scanned the horizon.

Tradition Fish fisherman
Mending nets is part of the daily ritual of a luzzu skipper. Photo: Meg Pier

The string of boats across the harbor called to mind the double helix of a DNA strand. My visits to Marsaxlokk Bay, Grand Harbor and the Blue Grotto seemed to weave together a millennium of life on Malta’s waters, a palpable pattern of time, place and tradition.

More on Malta

Header image courtesy of Wouter Engler, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Meg Pier

Meg Pier

Publisher and editor of People Are Culture (PAC). This article was created by original reporting that sourced expert commentary from local cultural standard-bearers. Those quoted provide cultural and historical context that is unique to their role in the community and to this article.


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